Neradsof Syntax 2 — Passives & Imperatives

Previously, in Neradsof Syntax:

Basic sentence structure varies based on verb type as follows:

  1. SUB - VI

  2. SUB - VT - DO

  3. SC - SUB - VL

  4. SUB - Vc - OC - DO

  5. SUB - IO - Vg - DO

You may also want to note the addendum on functional roles and verb types.

TL;DR: All constructs (except subjects) may be moved from their specified positions to any other position, however, they must be consequently marked when they are. Subjects may only be moved to the end of the sentence (and must also be marked)

Disclaimer on use of ‘technical’ terms

Neradsof Syntax Part 2:
Passive & Imperative Sentence Structure

Passive Structures

In passive structures, the grammatical subject of the sentence is removed. For instance, in the sentence ‘Cookies were made for my brother’, it may appear that cookies are the subject, since it precedes the verb ‘made’, but we know cookies don’t make themselves. The baker who made the cookies are the subject, and we understand that he must exist somewhere, even if he isn’t present in the sentence.

As in English, Neradsof passives are generated by removing the subject and fronting the direct object, that is, moving the direct object to the head of the sentence. The thing that makes Neradsof different, and just the slightest bit more convoluted, is that when a construct is moved out of place, it is marked with the suffix that corresponds to its grammatical function. These suffixes are:

‘-eis’ for the subject
-ahm’ for the direct object
ad’ for the indirect object
-ahv’ for the subject complement
-’l’ for the object complement

This follows for every verb type. For example with the simple transitive verb ‘love’: (here ‘DO’ represents the direct object marker; and ‘SUB’ represents the subject marker)

English Active: Katy loved Charlene.

English Passive #1: Charlene was loved.
Neradsof Skeleton: Charlene-DO love-PST.
Neradsof Translation: Charlene-ahm keiveun-’d.

English Passive #2: Charlene was loved by Katy.
Neradsof Skeleton: Charlene-DO love-PST Katy-SUB.
Neradsof Translation: Charlene-ahm keiveun-’d Katy-eis.

note for the second passivisation, if Katy’ had been left preceding the verb, it would not need to be marked since it remains in the correct position relative to the verb.

With the Neradsof linking verb ‘isName’: (here ‘SC’ represents the subject complement marker)

English Translation: Her name is Coral.
Neradsof Active:
Coral-she isName-PST.
Neradsof Passive: Coral-SC isName-PST
Neradsof Translation: honest-Selena-DO call-PST.

note that the verb ‘isName’ is a single verb concept in Neradsof with no clean English equivalent.

This works also with ditransitives, however, may require additional markers. For ditransitive OC verbs, the object complement will remain attached to the object through the move unless it can stand alone. An example with the ditransitive OC verb ‘call’:

English Active: Cody called Selena honest.
English Passive: Selena was called honest.
Neradsof Skeleton: honest-Selena-DO call-PST.
Neradsof Translation: vylere-Selena-ahm tiahl-’d.

With the ditransitive IO verb ‘give’: (here ‘POSS’ represents the possessive marker; and ‘IO’ represents the indirect object marker)

English Active: Autumn gave Cody Charlene’s Tephaws.
Neradsof Skeleton: Autumn Cody give-PST Charlene-POSS-Tephaws

English Passive #1: Charlene’s Tephaws was given to Cody.
Neradsof Skeleton: Charlene-POSS-Tephaws-DO Cody give-PST.
Neradsof Translation: Charlene-el-tehvrahs-ahm Cody dongeyr-’d.

English Passive #2: Charlene’s Tephaws was given to Cody.
Neradsof Skeleton: Charlene-POSS-Tephaws-DO give-PST Cody-IO.
Neradsof Translation: Charlene-el-tehvrahs-ahm dongeyr-’d Cody-ad.

English Passive #3: Cody was given Charlene’s Tephaws.
Neradsof Skeleton: Cody-IO give-PST Charlene-POSS-Tephaws.
Neradsof Translation: Cody-ad dongeyr-’d Charlene-el-tehvrahs.

note here that the indirect object is marked, even though it remains in the correct position relative to the verb. This is to avoid its being confused as the subject.

Imperative Structures

Imperatives are sentences that command or request something. This generally entails fronting the verb in English, such as ‘Give me the cookies’. Neradsof imperatives are constructed much the same way as passives are, except that everything preceding the verb is moved such that the verb comes first. All moved constructs are then marked. In most command imperatives, the subject is simply omitted, as it is implied to be the person to whom the command is directed. For instance:

English Translation: Give me a miracle!
Neradsof Skeleton: Give me-IO a-miracle!
Neradsof Translation: dongeyr joli-ad ohn-gihrjei!

note that the direct object ‘a miracle’ is still right of the verb, it is not marked. In this case, the indirect object was moved such that the verb could be fronted.

If the subject is not omitted, it is generally marked and put at the end of the sentence, for instance: (here ‘NEG’ represents the negative marker)

English Translation: Don’t you follow me!
Neradsof Skeleton: NEG-follow me you-SUB!
Theoretical Neradsof Translation: n’-kiisejey joli los-eis!
True Neradsof Translation: n’-kiisejey joli loi!

The reason why Neradsof speakers will not mark the pronouns ‘you’ and ‘me’ even though the subject ‘you’ has been moved from its position is because pronoun forms changed based on functional role. The word ‘loi’ is only used when the second person pronoun is functionally a subject. Therefore, there is no need to mark it. We will go over varying pronoun forms in a different post.

But I think that’s quite enough for this post. Next up… question structure!