Basic sentence structure varies based on verb type as follows:
Subject - Intransitive Verb
Subject - Simple Transitive Verb - Direct Object
Subject Complement - Subject - Linking Verb
Subject - Ditransitive OC Verb - Object Complement - Direct Object
Subject - Indirect Object - Ditransitive IO Verb - Direct Object
Neradsof Syntax Part 1: Indicative Sentence Structure
Before we begin, it may perhaps be somewhat important to lay a foundation for functional roles and verb types, which I have written out in this short addendum for your reference. This would give you a foundation for what a subject is, or an indirect as opposed to a direct object, and how the various types of verbs differ.
In Neradsof, it is important to know which type of verb is being used because each verb type uses a different sentence structure. Keeping that in mind, let’s look at basic sentence skeletons.
Basic Sentence Structure
Basic sentence structure, or indicative sentence structure, refers to sentences that state something. The truth of that statement may be questionable, but that does not factor much into sentence construction, grammatically speaking anyway. So long as it isn’t a command, isn’t a wishful thought, its probably indicative. Traditionally, indicatives include questions, but for sake of simplicity we’re going to separate questions out into interrogatives, and give them their own ports later down the line.
Intransitive Verb (VI) Indicatives
Sentences that use an intransitive verb will use a basic structure identical to that of English: Subject-Verb. For example: (here ‘PST’ represents the past tense marker).
Simple Transitive Verb (VT) Indicatives
Sentences that use a simple transitive verb will also use a basic sentence structure identical to that of English: Subject-Verb-Direct Object. For example: (here ‘PL’ represents the plural marker)
Linking Verb (VL) Indicatives
Here’s where Neradsof and English diverge. Sentences that use a linking verb will use a basic sentence structure as follows: Subject Compliment-Subject-Verb. This is largely due to the fact that subject complements can be adjectives, and if we remember our morphology rules, adjectives do not stand alone in Neradsof, they are always attached to either a noun or verb construct. For example:
Ditransitive OC Verb (Vc) Indicatives
For ditransitive verbs that take an object complement, sentences will use a basic structure as follows: Subject-Verb-Object Complement-Direct Object. As with subjects and subject complements, this is largely due to the fact that object complements can be adjectives, so are often attached to their objects. For example:
Note that in this example, the entire object complement phrase ‘an honest man’ is reduced to the single adjective ‘honest’ in Neradsof.
Ditransitive IO Verb (Vg) Indicatives
For ditransitive verbs that take an indirect object together with a direct object, sentences use the basic structure as follows: Subject-Indirect Obejct-Verb-Direct Object. For example:
And that’s your basic introduction to Neradsof syntax! Next grammar week, we’ll look into generating imperatives (commands) and passive sentences — hold on to your hats, it gets wild…