Neradsof Syntax 1 — Indicatives

TL;DR:

Basic sentence structure varies based on verb type as follows:

  1. Subject - Intransitive Verb

  2. Subject - Simple Transitive Verb - Direct Object

  3. Subject Complement - Subject - Linking Verb

  4. Subject - Ditransitive OC Verb - Object Complement - Direct Object

  5. Subject - Indirect Object - Ditransitive IO Verb - Direct Object


Disclaimer on use of ‘technical’ terms

Neradsof Syntax Part 1: Indicative Sentence Structure

Before we begin, it may perhaps be somewhat important to lay a foundation for functional roles and verb types, which I have written out in this short addendum for your reference. This would give you a foundation for what a subject is, or an indirect as opposed to a direct object, and how the various types of verbs differ.

In Neradsof, it is important to know which type of verb is being used because each verb type uses a different sentence structure. Keeping that in mind, let’s look at basic sentence skeletons.

Basic Sentence Structure

Basic sentence structure, or indicative sentence structure, refers to sentences that state something. The truth of that statement may be questionable, but that does not factor much into sentence construction, grammatically speaking anyway. So long as it isn’t a command, isn’t a wishful thought, its probably indicative. Traditionally, indicatives include questions, but for sake of simplicity we’re going to separate questions out into interrogatives, and give them their own ports later down the line.

Intransitive Verb (VI) Indicatives

Sentences that use an intransitive verb will use a basic structure identical to that of English: Subject-Verb. For example: (here ‘PST’ represents the past tense marker).

English: Katy suffered.
Neradsof Skeleton: Katy suffer-PST.
Neradsof Translation: Katy kof-’d.

Simple Transitive Verb (VT) Indicatives

Sentences that use a simple transitive verb will also use a basic sentence structure identical to that of English: Subject-Verb-Direct Object. For example: (here ‘PL’ represents the plural marker)

English: Kyland bought the eytsuts.
Neradsof Skeleton: Kyland buy-PST the-eytsut-PL.
Neradsof Translation: Kyland eihts-’d si-eytsut-eh.

Linking Verb (VL) Indicatives

Here’s where Neradsof and English diverge. Sentences that use a linking verb will use a basic sentence structure as follows: Subject Compliment-Subject-Verb. This is largely due to the fact that subject complements can be adjectives, and if we remember our morphology rules, adjectives do not stand alone in Neradsof, they are always attached to either a noun or verb construct. For example:

English: Her mother was absent.
Neradsof Skeleton: absent-her-mother be(PST).
Neradsof Translation: ‘craj-ele-hersof vus.

Ditransitive OC Verb (Vc) Indicatives

For ditransitive verbs that take an object complement, sentences will use a basic structure as follows: Subject-Verb-Object Complement-Direct Object. As with subjects and subject complements, this is largely due to the fact that object complements can be adjectives, so are often attached to their objects. For example:

English: The sharof judged him an honest man.
Neradsof Skeleton: the-sharof judge-PST honest-him.
Neradsof Translation: si-sharof cacseith-’d vylere-anleh.

Note that in this example, the entire object complement phrase ‘an honest man’ is reduced to the single adjective ‘honest’ in Neradsof.

Ditransitive IO Verb (Vg) Indicatives

For ditransitive verbs that take an indirect object together with a direct object, sentences use the basic structure as follows: Subject-Indirect Obejct-Verb-Direct Object. For example:

English: Sehkerth gave Makrithen the Manor.
Neradsof Skeleton: Sehkerth Makrithen give-PST the-Manor.
Neradsof Translation: Sehkerth Makrithen dongeyr-’d Al’fol.

And that’s your basic introduction to Neradsof syntax! Next grammar week, we’ll look into generating imperatives (commands) and passive sentences — hold on to your hats, it gets wild…